Complex, three dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g. cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits,vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in man-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in materials growth and assembly. Here we report routes to previously inaccessible classes of 3D constructs in advanced materials, including device-grade silicon. The schemes involve geometric transformation of two dimensional (2D) micro/nanostructures into extended 3D layouts by compressive buckling. Demonstrations include experimental and theoretical studies of more than forty representative geometries, from single and multiple helices, toroids and conical spirals to structures that resemble spherical baskets, cuboid cages, starbursts, flowers, scaffolds, fences and frameworks, each with single and/or multiple level configurations.
Yonggang Huang is the Walter P. Murphy Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Civil and Environmental Engineering at Northwestern University. He has broad interests in many branches of Engineering Science and has established mechanics models for advanced technology. He has published 1 book and more than 500 journal papers and book chapters, including multidisciplinary journals Science (2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015) and Nature (2008, 2013). His recent awards include the Larson Award (2003), Melville Medal (2004), Richards Award (2010), and Drucker Medal (2013) from ASME; Young Investigator Medal (2006) from SES; International Journal of Plasticity Medal (2007); Guggenheim Fellowship (2008) from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation; and ISI Highly Cited Researcher in Engineering (2009) and in Materials Science (2014 and 2015). He is the Editor of Journal of Applied Mechanics, a member of the Executive Committee of the ASME Applied Mechanics Division, and Past the President of SES.